THE ROSETTA LANGUAGE: A Universal Method of Communication

The ROSETTA Language is an artificial, constructed language. It can be used as an [International Auxiliary Language] for foreign language communication and translation; as a vehicle for knowledge representation and communication in [Artificial Intelligence]; as a medium for communication with language-impaired individuals; and potentially for both SETI - [Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence] and CITI - [Communication with Intra-Terrestrial Intelligence]. It is a Rosetta Stone for all linguistic communication: a Rudimentary, Operational, Symbolic, Easily Taught and Translated, Artificial Language.

"Leibnitz desired the creation of a language which should be an instrument of reason. The words must embody the definition of ideas, so that they may be deduced by algebraic transformation. He argued that all complex ideas are the product of simple ideas..." ('Delphos, the Future of International Language,' by E. Sylvia Pankhurst)

The central idea behind the ROSETTA Language is that all linguistic meanings can be represented using a core group of only 250 simple basic meanings or prime concepts. These prime concepts are then combined to build more complex compound concepts. For example, the basic concepts 'parent' and 'male' are combined to form the complex concept "father". There is no fixed or formal [Grammar] to the language, so its usage is very flexible.

The ROSETTA Language can be expressed in a variety of different forms. It can be read and written, spoken, signed (for deaf users), or touched (for blind users). Each form uses the same set of 250 [Prime Concepts], and combines them to form the same set of [Compound Concepts]. The only difference is the channel of communication: reading/writing, speaking, signing, or touching. Thus, once a user has learned the language in one form, it is known in all forms. All that is required is to learn the representation for each of the 250 symbols in that form.

The written form of the ROSETTA Language, [ROSETTA Glyphics], is somewhat similar to another artificial, constructed language called Blissymbolics. Blissymbolics, originally called Semantography, was created in the 1940's by Charles K. Bliss. His pioneering work was a major inspiration for the development of the ROSETTA Language. Although some of the symbols of the two languages are similar or the same, there are important differences. Blissymbolics uses subscripting, superscripting, and overlapping symbols, making its usage complicated. ROSETTA Glyphics requires no such juxtaposing of symbols, using instead a simple, linear progression to build complex meanings. Blissymbolics contains an unspecified number of symbols with many irregular variations, whereas the ROSETTA Language contains exactly 250 symbols and no irregular variations. The ROSETTA Language is also suitable for speaking [ROSETTA Phonics], hand-signing [ROSETTA Signics] , touching [ROSETTA Touchics], and computer representation, not just reading and writing, whereas Blissymbolics is not. These factors make the ROSETTA Language clearer in meaning, easier to learn and to use, and more universal.

International Auxiliary Language

An international auxiliary language is one which is used to communicate between people who speak different natural languages. This has been the dream of many great thinkers. Arthur C. Clarke lists the "establishment of a global language" as a goal for cosmic engineering ('Profiles of the Future,' p.224). Gerard K. O'Neill envisions a "Common Basic" language in mankind's future ('2081: A Hopeful View of the Human Future,' p.115). There have been many such attempts to institute international auxiliary languages, most notably Esperanto, but all have failed. This may be due to a number of reasons, but I believe the primary reason is that the languages have been too difficult to learn and too cumbersome to use.

The single most important requirement for an international auxiliary language is that it be quick and easy to learn and to use. Many people are unwilling or unable to invest the enormous amount of time required to learn another language. A highly simplified artificial language would seem to be the most practical choice. The ROSETTA Language has only 250 prime concepts, or basic meanings, which can be learned in a short time. Many of the compound concepts, or complex meanings, are self-evident, such as "father", or are logically constructed so that after seeing and using them a few times they are readily remembered. This makes the language easy to learn and easy to use, and thus it is very suitable as an international auxiliary language.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is the science of computers that can think, learn, reason, and use language. The ROSETTA Language was constructed with artificial intelligence in mind. The logical structure of the language makes it clear and concise for knowledge representation. Unlike natural languages, which are riddled with contradictions, exceptions, and ambiguities, the ROSETTA Language is very regular and orderly. Each prime concept is simple, clear, and distinct. Each compound concept is logically constructed from two or more prime concepts. This makes complex meanings understandable by breaking them down into their most simple, basic elements. And in doing this, they can be manipulated and operated upon like mathematical equations to simulate thought.

The ROSETTA Language is also readily codifiable and representable by computers. The number of prime concepts, 250, fits nicely within an 8-bit character set (like ASCII), and was in fact a major reason the language was designed to contain 250 concepts. The written characters, ROSETTA Glyphics, are representable within an 8x8 pixel grid, making them easy to write by hand and easy to display on a computer screen or printer. There is also an alphabetic abbreviation for each prime concept, making them fairly easy to input from a standard computer keyboard. Alternatively, a 16x16 character table of all prime concepts can be navigated via mouse or arrow keys, and input generated by clicking on the appropriate symbol(s).

Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence

The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is probably one of the most profound and far-reaching pursuits mankind has ever undertaken. In order to communicate with an extra-terrestrial intelligence, should one ever be discovered, some type of language will be necessary. The principle requirement for such a language is that it be self-defining. A self-defining language is one which, given that absolutely nothing is initially known about the language, it can be logically defined and derived from itself. This is accomplished by giving examples of the most basic concepts, such as numbers and mathematical operations, and then using them with further examples to build and define increasingly more complex concepts, until the entire language has been derived.

A sample of how this may be accomplished is as follows:

Numbers:  1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9   conveyed using binary beeps or tones.
Equality: 1=1, 2=2, 3=3, 4=4, ... the '=' sign must be equality.
Addition: 1+1=2, 1+2=3, 1+3=4, ... the '+' sign must be addition.
Subtraction: 6-1=5, 6-2=4, 6-3=3, ... the '-' must be subtraction.
Multiplication: 2x2=4, 2x3=6, 2x4=8, ... 'x' must be multiplication.
Division: 6/1=6, 6/2=3, 6/3=2, 6/6=1, ... '/' must be division.
Zero: 1-1=0, 2-2=0, 1+0=1, ... '0' must be zero.
Two-digits: 2x5=10, 3x4=12, ... two-digit numbers, base 10.
Multi-digits: 10x10=100, 100x100=10000, ... multi-digit numbers.
Decimals: 1/2=.5, 1/4=.25, 1/20=.05, ... '.' must be a decimal point.

This process can theoretically be carried further to derive the meanings of all 250 prime concepts in the ROSETTA Language. From there, the meanings of the compound concepts can be logically constructed, until the entire language has been defined. This self-defining process has not been completed, but it is clear from this beginning that it is feasible.

Communication with Intra-Terrestrial Intelligence

It is considered a fact that humans are not the only animals to possess some level of intelligence here on earth. Experiments have been done to communicate with chimpanzees and dolphins, and have achieved some success. A truly universal language, capable of potentially communicating with extra-terrestrial intelligence, certainly ought to be able to communicate with intra-terrestrial intelligence as well.

The ROSETTA Language could be used as the basis for such communication. Systems of representing the prime concepts in species-appropriate ways could be devised and used for communication. The complete set of prime concepts may not be needed, and certainly a limit would be reached on the number of compound concepts that are comprehendable, depending upon the species, but the clear and logical nature of the language makes it suitable for this kind of task. This endeavor is far outside my area of expertise, and it is mentioned here only to show the truly universal nature of the ROSETTA Language.

Prime Concepts

The idea of prime concepts is very similar to that of prime numbers. In mathematics, a prime number is one which cannot be factored, that is it cannot be derived by multiplying two smaller numbers together. Likewise, in the ROSETTA Language, a prime concept is one which cannot be factored, that is it cannot be derived by combining two or more other concepts together. The ROSETTA Language consists of 250 prime concepts, and all linguistic meanings are built from these elements.

To create these prime concepts, thousands of words and meanings were analyzed to see if they could be expressed as combinations of other words and meanings, or if they were so basic in meaning as to be indivisible and thus to become prime concepts. Through a series of iterations and refinements, the general lexicon of human language was reduced to its essential elements, resulting in the prime concepts. These are the indivisible units of all linguistic meaning, also known sometimes as morphemes or semantic primitives.

The ROSETTA Language is composed of 250 of these basic, indivisible meanings, or prime concepts. All other meanings are derived by combining these prime concepts together into compound concepts. A complete list of all prime concepts is contained in the [Prime Concepts Table]. All other concepts or meanings not included in this list are, by definition, compound concepts.

Compound Concepts

Compound concepts are created by combining two or more prime concepts together in a specific sequence. One of the simplest examples is the combination of the prime concepts 'parent' and 'male' to create the compound concept 'parent-male', or "father". Generally, when two or more prime concepts are combined, they create a more specifc meaning than either one alone. In this example, the compound concept "father" is a more specific term than either of its prime concepts 'parent' and 'male'.

An exception to this rule occurs when combining two prime concepts having opposite meanings, in which case a more general concept is created. An example of this is the combination of the prime concepts 'male' and 'female', creating the compound concept 'male-female', or "gender". Here, the compound concept "gender" is a more general term than either of its prime concepts 'male' and 'female'.

Another general rule to apply when forming compound concepts is that the primary or most basic concept is usually positioned first, and secondary or more specific concepts are appended to the end to give a more specific meaning. By adding more prime concepts to a compound concept, its meaning becomes more clear and specific. For example, the prime concept 'animal' may be used alone, or it may be combined with another prime concept such as 'temperature', to create the compound concept 'animal-temperature' meaning "mammal". This may be further combined with another prime concept such as 'liquid', to create the compound concept 'animal-temperature-liquid' meaning "sea mammal" which would refer to dolphins, whales, seals, etc.

Notice that when writing concepts, prime concepts are enclosed in single quotes, like 'this'; compound concepts are enclosed in double quotes, like "that"; and compound concepts expressed as a combination of prime concepts are enclosed in single quotes and separated by hyphens, like 'the-other'. This convention is followed when using the full-word representations of concepts. When using the three-letter abbreviations of concepts, they are written in capital letters, and separated by hypens, as in NUM-ONE, 'number-one', meaning "first".

Theoretically, there is no limit to the number of compound concepts which can be created. Just as new words are created and added to a natural language, new words may be created and added to the ROSETTA Language. There is also no limit to the length of a compound concept. Prime concepts may be linked together as long as necessary to clearly define a compound concept. However, practically speaking, compound concepts should be kept as short as possible for ease in reading, writing, speaking, signing, and touching.

ROSETTA Glyphics

ROSETTA Glyphics are the written symbols used to represent concepts in the ROSETTA Language. While alphabetic word concepts and three-letter abbreviations work fine, the language was designed to have its own set of graphical symbols. Each symbol is like a picture, which should immediately and clearly conjure up the idea represented. The symbols are more like Chinese characters or Egyptian hieroglyphics (hence the name 'ROSETTA Glyphics') than abstract verbal-related letters. Each prime concept has its own symbol, and compound concepts are a sequence of adjoining prime symbols. ROSETTA Glyphics are normally written left to right, but may also be written right to left like Hebrew, or top to bottom like Chinese.

Each symbol is easy to write by hand, with just a few strokes, like the letters of an alphabet. This makes ROSETTA Glyphics much easier to use than other written pictographic languages like Chinese. For computer representation, each symbol can be displayed within an 8x8 pixel grid, with the bottom and right rows of pixels always left blank for spacing between symbols, making the usable area actually a 7x7 pixel grid. This restriction insures that the symbols will not be overly complicated nor difficult to read and write. There is no superscripting or subscripting, no upper or lower case, and no juxtaposing or overlapping of symbols. Normally, the symbols would be written the same size as the letters of an alphabet.

An example of ROSETTA Glyphics follows:

The symbol for the prime concept 'do' is a large circle:  O
 
The symbol for the prime conecpt 'no' is a back slash:  \
 
Combine the two prime concepts 'do' and 'no' together to
form the compound concept 'do-no' which means "don't":  O\

ROSETTA Phonics

The ROSETTA Language may be expressed verbally in a variety of ways. The simplest way is to take the single word equivalent in a natural language corresponding to each of the prime concepts, and then speak using only those 250 words. Compound concepts would be spoken as the hyphenated concatenations of those prime concepts. This could be done using any natural language. Thus, to learn a foreign language with the ROSETTA Language as a base, one would need to learn only 250 words. It would not be complete or grammatical usage of that language, but it would be enough to be understood, and that is the essential goal of any communication. This alone would make international communication much more realizable.

However, the ROSETTA Language has it own set of spoken symbols as well. Each spoken symbol consists of one consonant followed by one vowel. There are 16 consonants and 16 vowels, which correspond to the 16 rows and 16 columns of the prime concepts. Each row signifies the same consonant, and each column signifies the same vowel. Prime concepts are spoken as a single-syllable utterance of the consonant followed by the vowel. Compound concepts are spoken as a multi-syllable concatenation of their prime concepts. In this way, ROSETTA Phonics can be clearly and completely used to represent all concepts in the ROSETTA Language.

The 16 consonants and their hexadecimal rows and pronunciations are:

  1. 0_ no consonant, just the vowel sound
  2. 1_ "h" as in "hay" or "hi"
  3. 2_ "k"/"c" as in "key" or "kin"
  4. 3_ "g" as in "gay" or "guy"
  5. 4_ "p" as in "pay" or "pie"
  6. 5_ "b" as in "bay" or "buy"
  7. 6_ "t" as in "tea" or "tie"
  8. 7_ "d" as in "day" or "die"
  9. 8_ "v" as in "van" or "vow"
  10. 9_ "f" as in "fee" or "foe"
  11. A_ "j" as in "jet" or "jot"
  12. B_ "w" as in "wet" or "woe"
  13. C_ "m" as in "may" or "my"
  14. D_ "n" as in "net" or "new"
  15. E_ "r"/"l" as in "ray" or "rye"
  16. F_ "z" as in "zip" or "zoo"

The 16 vowels and their hexadecimal columns and pronunciations are:

  1. _0 "ah" as in "ha" or "la"
  2. _1 "aa" as in "bay" or "day"
  3. _2 "eh" as in "bed" or "head"
  4. _3 "ee" as in "bee" or "fee"
  5. _4 "ih" as in "bid" or "bit"
  6. _5 "ii" as in "hi" or "pie"
  7. _6 "oh" as in "go" or "hoe"
  8. _7 "oo" as in "do" or "too"
  9. _8 "ahs" as in "pasta" or "fossil", not as in "past" or "loss"
  10. _9 "aas" as in "ace" or "face"
  11. _A "ehs" as in "less" or "mess"
  12. _B "ees" as in "geese" or "lease"
  13. _C "ihs" as in "hiss" or "miss"
  14. _D "iis" as in "ice" or "dice"
  15. _E "ohs" as in "dose" or "verbose", not as in "hose" or "rose"
  16. _F "oos" as in "goose" or "moose"

The complete table of pronunciations for the ROSETTA Language is:

    _0  _1  _2  _3  _4  _5  _6  _7   _8   _9   _A   _B   _C   _D   _E   _F
0_  ah  aa  eh  ee  ih  ii  oh  oo  ahs  aas  ehs  ees  ihs  iis  ohs  oos
1_ hah haa heh hee hih hii hoh hoo hahs haas hehs hees hihs hiis hohs hoos
2_ kah kaa keh kee kih kii koh koo kahs kaas kehs kees kihs kiis kohs koos
3_ gah gaa geh gee gih gii goh goo gahs gaas gehs gees gihs giis gohs goos
4_ pah paa peh pee pih pii poh poo pahs paas pehs pees pihs piis pohs poos
5_ bah baa beh bee bih bii boh boo bahs baas behs bees bihs biis bohs boos
6_ tah taa teh tee tih tii toh too tahs taas tehs tees tihs tiis tohs toos
7_ dah daa deh dee dih dii doh doo dahs daas dehs dees dihs diis dohs doos
8_ vah vaa veh vee vih vii voh voo vahs vaas vehs vees vihs viis vohs voos
9_ fah faa feh fee fih fii foh foo fahs faas fehs fees fihs fiis fohs foos
A_ jah jaa jeh jee jih jii joh joo jahs jaas jehs jees jihs jiis johs joos
B_ wah waa weh wee wih wii woh woo wahs waas wehs wees wihs wiis wohs woos
C_ mah maa meh mee mih mii moh moo mahs maas mehs mees mihs miis mohs moos
D_ nah naa neh nee nih nii noh noo nahs naas nehs nees nihs niis nohs noos
E_ rah raa reh ree rih rii roh roo rahs raas rehs rees rihs riis rohs roos
F_ zah zaa zeh zee zih zii zoh zoo zahs zaas zehs zees zihs ziis zohs zoos

ROSETTA Signics

A series of hand signals, similar to American Sign Language (ASL), is provided for use of the ROSETTA Language by deaf persons. Each prime concept has its own sign, and many are very similar to the pictographic symbols employed by ROSETTA Glyphics. All signs are performed with the use of only one hand (allowing left-hand or right-hand signification), and are motionless (as opposed to moving) representations. There are two major elements to each hand sign:

  1. configuration of the fingers and thumb
  2. orientation of the hand, wrist and arm

For the proper decipherment of some signs, it is important to remember that reference orientation is relative to the signer, not to the viewer. For example, the concept 'left' is indicated by pointing the index finger to the signer's left (which would normally be the viewer's right). Some hand signs are also very similar or identical to those of ASL.

A few examples will give you a general idea of how ROSETTA Signics work:

UP   up     Make a fist, then extend the index finger and point up.
 
DWN  down   Make a fist, then extend the index finger and point down.
 
LFT  left   Make a fist, then extend the index finger and point left.
 
RGT  right  Make a fist, then extend the index finger and point right.
 
EQL  equal  Make a fist, then extend the index and middle fingers with 
            a small gap between them and point sideways (left).

A series of full body position symbols, or semaphores, with unique configurations of the head, arms, legs, and torso, could also be used to represent the prime concepts of the ROSETTA Language, but such a system has not yet been developed.

ROSETTA Touchics

A touch-sensitive system of communication for blind persons, similar to Braille, is provided for the ROSETTA Language. Utilizing the hexadecimal nature of the language and its organization into 16 rows and 16 columns, each row and column is identified by a binary string of four bits. Each bit is identified by a raised or flat dot, with "on" bits indicated by a raised dot, and "off" bits indicated by a flat dot.

To form a complete prime concept, two bit strings are positioned next to each other, and read from left to right. The left bit string indicates the row or first hexadecimal character, and the right bit string indicates the column or second hexadecimal character. Blank space is used to separate one concept from another. Compound concepts are represented by joining two or more prime concepts together, just like alphabetic letters are joined together to form words.

Grammar

Essentially, there is no fixed or formal grammar to the ROSETTA Language. Several concepts may be given together, separated by spaces, making sentences as each user sees fit. This makes the language appealing to the users of many different natural languages, who may want to think and communicate in the grammar and word order of their mother tongue. There are, however, a number of rules to follow when building concepts to form the various parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions.

Nouns function to name something. They generally begin with the concepts 'person', 'place', 'thing', or 'idea'. Examples include 'person-flag' meaning "citizen", 'place-flag' meaning "nation", 'thing-flag' meaning "flag", and 'idea-flag' meaning "sovereignty". Concrete nouns (things) and abstract nouns (ideas) are differentiated by the starting concepts 'thing' and 'idea' respectively.

Some nouns begin with other concepts which are instances of things or ideas in themselves. Some examples are 'building-medical' meaning "hospital" and 'mind-up' meaning "wisdom". Verbal nouns - gerunds and infinitives - begin with either the concepts 'idea-do' meaning "action, process" or 'idea-be' meaning "quality, state". Examples are 'idea-do-together' meaning "joining", and 'idea-be-together' meaning "connection".

Pronouns substitute for nouns. They always begin like nouns, but end with a number concept like 'one', 'two', or 'three' which substitues for a more specific or direct concept or meaning. Examples are 'person-one' meaning "I, me, self", 'person-two' meaning "you, other", and 'person-three' meaning "he, she". Notice how nicely these correspond to the narrative terms first person, second person, and third person. Pronouns are not limited to three, however, and can be used to refer to and distinguish between any number of different nouns.

Noun and pronoun inflection or declension is accomplished by adding the appropriate concept to the end of a noun. To make a noun plural, the concept 'multiple' is added to the end. For example 'thing-multiple' meaning "things" or 'person-one-multiple' meaning "we, us". To make a noun possessive, the concept 'own' is added to the end. For example 'person-one-own' meaning "my, mine" or 'person-two-own' meaning "your, yours". Gender is not necessary in the ROSETTA Language, but it can be assigned if desired by adding the concepts 'male' or 'female' to the end of a noun concept.

Verbs express action or state of being. They always begin with the concepts 'do' or 'be'. Examples of verbs include 'do-up' meaning "to rise", 'do-down' meaning "to fall", 'be-plus' meaning "to be with", and 'be-minus' meaning "to be without". Almost any concept can be made into a verb by adding 'do' or 'be' in front of it. Some examples are 'do-food' meaning "to eat", 'do-fire' meaning "to burn", 'be-food' meaning "to be eaten", and 'be-fire' meaning "to be burned". Note that the active and passive voices are identified by the starting concepts 'do' and 'be' respectively.

Verb inflection or conjugation is accomplished by adding the appropriate concept to the end of a verb. To make a verb past tense, the concept 'past' is added to the end. To make a verb future tense, the concept 'future' is added to the end. For example 'do-down-past' meaning "fell", or 'do-down-future' meaning "will fall". Without a time concept added to the end of a verb, it is assumed to be present tense. Mood, person, number, and gender are all not necessary with verbs in the ROSETTA Language, but they can be added if desired.

Adjectives and adverbs modify other concepts. They always begin with the concept 'like', symbolized by the tilde, and end with other concepts describing the modification.

Adjectives and adverbs may precede or follow the noun or verb they modify, depending on the user's preference. Examples of adjectives and adverbs are 'like-up' meaning "high, highly", and 'like-down' meaning "low, lowly". Verbal adjectives - participles and infinitives - function as adjectives or adverbs, but are derived from verbs by preceding them with the concept 'like'. Examples are 'like-do' meaning "active, actively", 'like-be' meaning "passive, passively", and 'like-do-mouth' meaning "verbal, verbally". A complete example of a noun, 'building-medical' meaning "hospital", and its modifier, 'like-dimension-plus' meaning "large", placed together would be 'building-medical like-dimension-plus' meaning "the large hospital".

Conjunctions join concepts or groups of concepts. Prepositions show the relationship between concepts. They are both used in the ROSETTA Language by placing them between concepts as needed. For example, 'person-one and person-two' meaning "me and you", 'person-one choice person-two' meaning "me or you", and 'person-one past-compare person-two' meaning "me before you".

Punctuation is highly simplified in the ROSETTA Language. Sentences may be punctuated at their beginning, or at their end, or at both places. A punctuation mark is separated from its sentence by one blank or null character, and is separated from another sentence by two or more blank or null characters. There are only three types of sentences in the ROSETTA Language, and each has its own identifying punctuation mark:

The following are examples of sentences in English and in the ROSETTA Language:

Commas may be employed as the user sees fit to separate clauses or related concepts within a sentence. A comma in the ROSETTA Language is a prime concept meaning 'pause'. A colon in the ROSETTA Language is a prime concept meaning 'type, class, category', and not punctuation. Quotation marks are used in the ROSETTA Language to quote directly what a speaker says. The hyphen is also a prime concept meaning 'subtract, minus'. It is not used as punctuation in the ROSETTA Language. Other forms of punctuation are not used in the ROSETTA Language.

Capitalization applies only to alphabetic writing, and is thus not applicable to the written ROSETTA Language. In natural languages, it is used for the first word in a sentence, and for proper names. Proper names of people in the ROSETTA Language begin with the concepts 'male' or 'female', followed by other concepts as desired, usually based upon their sounds (see ROSETTA Phonics). Proper names of places and things begin with the concept 'label', followed immediately by the concepts 'place' or 'thing', and then by other concepts as appropriate.

As mentioned earlier, sentences may be constructed with concepts in any order desired. The major parts of a sentence are generally labeled subject (S), verb (V) and object (O). Thus sentences can be created in SVO, SOV, or VSO order. The choice will usually depend upon the grammar and word order of the user's native language. The only rule, and this may be overridden as long as it is consistent within a given communication, is that the subject should precede the object. The meaning should still be clear even to those who would prefer a different word order. For example, consider the following three sentences, each containing the same concepts and having the same meaning:

The ROSETTA Language may, at some point in the future, develop a more formal grammar automatically. This may occur spontaneously in children who may learn the language at a very young age, or by deliberate and rational choice. However, a formal grammar is not really required for the most basic and simple usage of the language.

Prime Concepts Table

A complete list of all prime concepts in the ROSETTA Language is given in the table below. Each concept is given with its number, hexadecimal computer code, ASCII equivalent (if any), three-letter alphabetic abbreviation, symbol description, and a short list of synonyms. The concepts are grouped into like categories based on their symbols and meanings.

PRIME CONCEPTS TABLE:

Num Hex Alpha  Symbol            Meaning and Synonyms
--- --- -----  ----------------  -------------------------------------
               DOTS AND PUNCTUATION
000. 00        blank             space, blank, null, concept separator
001. 01 . DOT  period            statement, informative, declarative
002. 02 ! XCL  exclamation       exclamation, imperative, command
003. 03 ? QUE  question mark     question, interrogative, inquiry
004. 04 : TYP  colon             type, class, category
005. 05   CPR  sideways colon    compare, comparison
006. 06   PRT  division          part, piece, divide
007. 07   CHS  side division     choice, choose, select
008. 08   MID  element equals    middle, center
009. 09   REC  element repeat    record
010. 0A   ELE  central dot       element, individual
011. 0B   SET  triangle dots     set, group, collection
012. 0C   SEQ  horizontal dots   sequence, order
013. 0D   LVL  vertical dots     level, hierarchy
014. 0E , CMA  comma             pause, separator
015. 0F " QOT  quotation mark    quotation
 
               LINES AND CROSSES
016. 10   YES  check mark        yes, okay, affirmative
017. 11 \ NO   backslash         no, not, negative
018. 12   ERR  yes and no        error, mistake, incorrect
019. 13 ~ LIK  tilde             like, modifier, adjective, adverb
020. 14 x MUL  multiply sign     multiple, plural
021. 15 + ADD  plus sign         plus, more
022. 16 - SUB  minus sign        minus, less
023. 17   STD  short bar         standard, common, regular, basic
024. 18 = EQL  equal sign        equality, sameness
025. 19   REP  parallel sign     repeat, again
026. 1A # NUM  number sign       number, amount
027. 1B   MRK  asterisk          mark, trace, vestige
028. 1C   BDR  fence             border, boundary
029. 1D   BLK  blockade          block, obstruction, impediment
030. 1E   MSR  horizontal scale  measure, quantity
031. 1F   MNR  vertical scale    monitor, quality
 
               CIRCLES AND CURVES
032. 20 O DO   large cicrcle     do, act, verb (active)
033. 21 o BE   small circle      be, exist, verb (passive)
034. 22   OP   large dot circle  operation, process, procedure, -ing
035. 23   ED   small dot circle  -ed, state, situation, circumstance
036. 24   WHL  wheel             wheel, turn
037. 25   BAL  ball              ball, roll
038. 26   NAT  ecology sign      nature
039. 27   GOD  unity sign        god, deity
040. 28 ( BGN  left paren        begin, start, initiate
041. 29 ) END  right paren       end, finish, terminate
042. 2A   HLD  down paren        hold, contain
043. 2B   LNK  up paren          link, connect, bridge
044. 2C   EVI  contained in      evidence
045. 2D   IPL  logic implies     implication
046. 2E u TOG  union             together, join, union
047. 2F n APR  intersection      apart, separate
 
               TRIANGLES AND ANGLES
048. 30   FRM  left triangle     form, shape
049. 31   DIM  right triangle    dimension
050. 32   ANG  angle             angle, fold, bend
051. 33   DIR  plow              direction, course
052. 34   PCN  diamond dot       precision
053. 35   DGR  diamond plus      danger
054. 36   IPT  diamond minus     importance
055. 37   SFN  diamond bar       satisfaction
056. 38   IN   less than         in
057. 39   OUT  greater than      out
058. 3A   ON   down wedge        on
059. 3B   OFF  up wedge          off
060. 3C   FRO  left caret        from, by
061. 3D   TO   right caret       to, for
062. 3E   OF   down caret        of, about, regarding
063. 3F ^ BUT  up caret          but, except
 
               SQUARES AND BRACKETS
064. 40   OBJ  large square      object, thing, material, noun
065. 41   IDA  small square      idea, concept, immaterial, noun
066. 42   DEV  large dot square  device
067. 43   ACC  small dot square  accessory
068. 44   MAC  thing multiply    machine
069. 45   PIC  window            picture, image, view
070. 46   CRD  card w/mag strip  card
071. 47   BOK  open book         book
072. 48 [ OPN  open bracket      open
073. 49 ] CLS  close bracket     close
074. 4A   BAS  down bracket      base, foundation, stand, support
075. 4B   CAP  up bracket        cap, cover, lid, protect
076. 4C   PRE  left open square  prepare, ready
077. 4D   USE  right open square use, utilize
078. 4E   SAV  down open square  save, store, keep, retain
079. 4F   DEL  up open square    delete, discard
 
               ARROWS AND POINTERS
080. 50   LFT  left arrow        left
081. 51   RGT  right arrow       right
082. 52   DWN  down arrow        down
083. 53   UP   up arrow          up
084. 54   FOR  down-left arrow   fore, forward
085. 55   AFT  up-right arrow    aft, backward
086. 56   AWY  up-left arrow     away
087. 57   TWD  down-right arrow  toward
088. 58   SRC  left dbl. arrow   source, means, resource
089. 59   GOL  right dbl. arrow  goal, target, objective
090. 5A   BRK  down dbl. arrow   break, ruin, destroy
091. 5B   MAK  up dbl. arrow     make, build, create
092. 5C   CON  left dbl. caret   con, against
093. 5D   PRO  right dbl. caret  pro, for, support
094. 5E   EFR  down dbl. caret   effort
095. 5F   ABL  up dbl. caret     ability
 
               HOOKS AND LOOPS
096. 60   ANY  left-right hooks  any 
097. 61   REV  left-right arrows reverse
098. 62   ALL  integral          all, every, integral
099. 63   OPP  up-down arrows    opposite
100. 64   STP  hand held up      stop
101. 65   GO   hand points away  go
102. 66 t TRU  letter "t"        true
103. 67 f FAL  letter "f"        false
104. 68   AND  ampersand         and
105. 69   OR   loop              or 
106. 6A   CPX  pretzel           complexity
107. 6B   FUN  loop-de-loop      function
108. 6C   TXR  horiz. wavey line texture
109. 6D   FBR  vert. wavey line  fibre
110. 6E   TWS  coil              twist, turn, coil, wrap
111. 6F                          undefined
 
               PHYSICS
112. 70   SND  waves             sound
113. 71   LIT  rays              light
114. 72   TMP  vapor             temperature
115. 73   ZAP  spark             electro-magnetism
116. 74   SBS  blob              substance, material
117. 75   SLD  vertical oval     solid
118. 76   LIQ  droplet           liquid
119. 77   GAS  balloon           gas
120. 78   EVT  bow-tie           event
121. 79   TIM  hourglass         time
122. 7A   MAS  anchor            mass, matter
123. 7B   FRC  omega             force, energy
124. 7C   CAU  left bow-tie      cause
125. 7D   EFC  right bow-tie     effect
126. 7E   FUT  up hourglass      future
127. 7F   PAS  down hourglass    past
 
               ORGANICS
128. 80 Y PLT  seedling          plant
129. 81 A ANI  biped             animal
130. 82   LIF  seedling + biped  life
131. 83   SEX  DNA: dbl. helix   sex, reproduction
132. 84   MAL  mars sign         male, masculine
133. 85   FEM  venus sign        female, feminine
134. 86   CHI  down body         child, offspring, posterity, progeny
135. 87   PAR  up body           parent, paternity
136. 88   SPO  horiz. rings      spouse, mate
137. 89   DOM  vert. rings       dominance, authority
138. 8A   SHR  slant rings       share
139. 8B   CPT  back-slant rings  competition, compete
140. 8C   SYS  four rings        system
141. 8D   RST  reclining body    rest, recline
142. 8E   MUS  up musical note   music
143. 8F   ART  down musical note art
 
               HUMANITY
144. 90   PER  body + feet       person, individual, human being
145. 91   ORG  dbl. body + feet  organization, group, collection
146. 92   SNS  neuron            sense, sensation, sensual
147. 93   SOL  halo              soul, conscience, superego
148. 94   EMO  heart             emotion, feeling, id
149. 95   MND  diamond           mind, rational, ego
150. 96   SOC  club              social, behavior
151. 97   WIL  spade             will, volition
152. 98   LNG  round call-out    language, communication
153. 99   MSG  square call-out   message, note
154. 9A   LBL  horiz. rectangle  label, tag, name
155. 9B   DOC  vert. rectangle   document, read
156. 9C   PEN  slash             pen, stylus, write
157. 9D   PCT  percent sign      percentage, chance
158. 9E   ATK  sword             attack, offense, violence
159. 9F   DEF  shield, badge     defend, defense, protect
 
               ANATOMY
160. A0   BOD  chinese "man"     body, physical
161. A1   TOR  hangman torso     torso
162. A2   ARM  hangman arms      arms and hands
163. A3   LEG  hangman legs      legs and feet
164. A4   HND  hand              hand, manual
165. A5 L FOT  foot              foot, pedal
166. A6   FGR  finger            finger
167. A7   TOE  toe               toe
168. A8   HED  smiley face       head
169. A9   TAL  tail              tail
170. AA   MTH  pac-man           mouth
171. AB   TNG  upside-down omega tongue
172. AC   SKN  cell              skin
173. AD   EYE  eye               eye
174. AE   EAR  ear               ear
175. AF   NOS  nose              nose
 
               VOCATIONS
176. B0 V JOB  letter "V"        job, vocation, occupation, profession
177. B1 $ VAL  dollar sign       value, money, dollar
178. B2   CAL  hash marks        calculate, compute
179. B3 E ENT  upside-down hat   entertainment
180. B4   IND  factory           industry, business, commerce
181. B5   GOV  flag              government
182. B6   TOY  yoyo              toy, play, fun
183. B7   TOL  mallet            tool, work
184. B8   BUS  horiz. "8" w/line business
185. B9   COM  vert. "8" w/line  commerce
186. BA   MED  rod of Asclepius  medical
187. BB   LGL  scales of justice legal
188. BC   PRN  flowchart print   print, press, media
189. BD   LTR  envelope          letter, post
190. BE   FIL  file folder       file, data, information
191. BF   CAS  briefcase         case, container
 
               EVERYDAY OBJECTS
192. C0   BEV  cup               beverage, drink
193. C1   FOD  bread             food, eat
194. C2   FAB  cloth             fabric, cloth
195. C3   CLO  hat               clothing 
196. C4   BLD  stick house       building
197. C5   ROM  stick room        room
198. C6   TBL  stick table       table, furniture
199. C7   CHR  stick chair       chair, seat, sit
200. C8   VEH  cart              vehicle
201. C9   WAY  underscore        way, path
202. CA @ AT   at sign           at, place, location
203. CB   FLD  grass             field, yard, outdoors
204. CC   FIR  flames            fire
205. CD   WEA  cloud             weather
206. CE   WAR  plate             wares
207. CF   ORN  ring              ornament
 
               SIMPLE ACTIONS
208. D0 T HIT  hammer            hit
209. D1   CUT  dagger            cut
210. D2   SQZ  tongs             squeeze, pliers, forceps, tweezers
211. D3   HNG  clothes hanger    hang, pendency
212. D4   DIG  shovel            dig
213. D5   POK  fork              poke, stab
214. D6                          undefined
215. D7                          undefined
216. D8                          undefined
217. D9                          undefined
218. DA   CLN  broom             clean
219. DB   GRM  comb              groom
220. DC   CTL  left delta        control
221. DD   RUL  right delta       rule
222. DE   MOV  down-delta        move, motion
223. DF   CHG  up delta          change, modify
 
               SIMPLE OBBJECTS
224. E0   STR  star              star
225. E1   BEL  bell              bell, ring
226. E2   AWL  awl               awl, punch, pick, driver
227. E3 | BAR  large bar         bar, rod, staff, pole
228. E4 p NDL  needle            needle
229. E5 H LDR  ladder            ladder, stairs, climb
230. E6                          undefined
231. E7                          undefined
232. E8   BRD  board             board, plank
233. E9                          undefined
234. EA   SUP  truss             support, truss, prop, bolster
235. EB   BRC  brick             brick
236. EC                          undefined
237. ED                          undefined
238. EE                          undefined
239. EF                          undefined
 
               NUMBERS AND RESERVED
240. F0 0 ZRO  number "0"        zero, none
241. F1 1 ONE  number "1"        one
242. F2 2 TWO  number "2"        two
243. F3 3 TRE  number "3"        three
244. F4 4 FOU  number "4"        four
245. F5 5 FIV  number "5"        five
246. F6 6 SIX  number "6"        six
247. F7 7 SEV  number "7"        seven
248. F8 8 EGT  number "8"        eight
249. F9 9 NIN  number "9"        nine

Last updated: August 27, 2008