The ROSETTA Language is an artificial, constructed language. It can be used as an [International Auxiliary Language] for foreign language communication and translation; as a vehicle for knowledge representation and communication in [Artificial Intelligence]; as a medium for communication with language-impaired individuals; and potentially for both SETI - [Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence] and CITI - [Communication with Intra-Terrestrial Intelligence]. It is a Rosetta Stone for all linguistic communication: a Rudimentary, Operational, Symbolic, Easily Taught and Translated, Artificial Language.
"Leibnitz desired the creation of a language which should be an instrument of reason. The words must embody the definition of ideas, so that they may be deduced by algebraic transformation. He argued that all complex ideas are the product of simple ideas..." ('Delphos, the Future of International Language,' by E. Sylvia Pankhurst)
The central idea behind the ROSETTA Language is that all linguistic meanings can be represented using a core group of only 250 simple basic meanings or prime concepts. These prime concepts are then combined to build more complex compound concepts. For example, the basic concepts 'parent' and 'male' are combined to form the complex concept "father". There is no fixed or formal [Grammar] to the language, so its usage is very flexible.
The ROSETTA Language can be expressed in a variety of different forms. It can be read and written, spoken, signed (for deaf users), or touched (for blind users). Each form uses the same set of 250 [Prime Concepts], and combines them to form the same set of [Compound Concepts]. The only difference is the channel of communication: reading/writing, speaking, signing, or touching. Thus, once a user has learned the language in one form, it is known in all forms. All that is required is to learn the representation for each of the 250 symbols in that form.
The written form of the ROSETTA Language, [ROSETTA Glyphics], is somewhat similar to another artificial, constructed language called Blissymbolics. Blissymbolics, originally called Semantography, was created in the 1940's by Charles K. Bliss. His pioneering work was a major inspiration for the development of the ROSETTA Language. Although some of the symbols of the two languages are similar or the same, there are important differences. Blissymbolics uses subscripting, superscripting, and overlapping symbols, making its usage complicated. ROSETTA Glyphics requires no such juxtaposing of symbols, using instead a simple, linear progression to build complex meanings. Blissymbolics contains an unspecified number of symbols with many irregular variations, whereas the ROSETTA Language contains exactly 250 symbols and no irregular variations. The ROSETTA Language is also suitable for speaking [ROSETTA Phonics], hand-signing [ROSETTA Signics] , touching [ROSETTA Touchics], and computer representation, not just reading and writing, whereas Blissymbolics is not. These factors make the ROSETTA Language clearer in meaning, easier to learn and to use, and more universal.
An international auxiliary language is one which is used to communicate between people who speak different natural languages. This has been the dream of many great thinkers. Arthur C. Clarke lists the "establishment of a global language" as a goal for cosmic engineering ('Profiles of the Future,' p.224). Gerard K. O'Neill envisions a "Common Basic" language in mankind's future ('2081: A Hopeful View of the Human Future,' p.115). There have been many such attempts to institute international auxiliary languages, most notably Esperanto, but all have failed. This may be due to a number of reasons, but I believe the primary reason is that the languages have been too difficult to learn and too cumbersome to use.
The single most important requirement for an international auxiliary language is that it be quick and easy to learn and to use. Many people are unwilling or unable to invest the enormous amount of time required to learn another language. A highly simplified artificial language would seem to be the most practical choice. The ROSETTA Language has only 250 prime concepts, or basic meanings, which can be learned in a short time. Many of the compound concepts, or complex meanings, are self-evident, such as "father", or are logically constructed so that after seeing and using them a few times they are readily remembered. This makes the language easy to learn and easy to use, and thus it is very suitable as an international auxiliary language.
Artificial Intelligence is the science of computers that can think, learn, reason, and use language. The ROSETTA Language was constructed with artificial intelligence in mind. The logical structure of the language makes it clear and concise for knowledge representation. Unlike natural languages, which are riddled with contradictions, exceptions, and ambiguities, the ROSETTA Language is very regular and orderly. Each prime concept is simple, clear, and distinct. Each compound concept is logically constructed from two or more prime concepts. This makes complex meanings understandable by breaking them down into their most simple, basic elements. And in doing this, they can be manipulated and operated upon like mathematical equations to simulate thought.
The ROSETTA Language is also readily codifiable and representable by computers. The number of prime concepts, 250, fits nicely within an 8-bit character set (like ASCII), and was in fact a major reason the language was designed to contain 250 concepts. The written characters, ROSETTA Glyphics, are representable within an 8x8 pixel grid, making them easy to write by hand and easy to display on a computer screen or printer. There is also an alphabetic abbreviation for each prime concept, making them fairly easy to input from a standard computer keyboard. Alternatively, a 16x16 character table of all prime concepts can be navigated via mouse or arrow keys, and input generated by clicking on the appropriate symbol(s).
The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is probably one of the most profound and far-reaching pursuits mankind has ever undertaken. In order to communicate with an extra-terrestrial intelligence, should one ever be discovered, some type of language will be necessary. The principle requirement for such a language is that it be self-defining. A self-defining language is one which, given that absolutely nothing is initially known about the language, it can be logically defined and derived from itself. This is accomplished by giving examples of the most basic concepts, such as numbers and mathematical operations, and then using them with further examples to build and define increasingly more complex concepts, until the entire language has been derived.
A sample of how this may be accomplished is as follows:
Numbers: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 conveyed using binary beeps or tones. Equality: 1=1, 2=2, 3=3, 4=4, ... the '=' sign must be equality. Addition: 1+1=2, 1+2=3, 1+3=4, ... the '+' sign must be addition. Subtraction: 6-1=5, 6-2=4, 6-3=3, ... the '-' must be subtraction. Multiplication: 2x2=4, 2x3=6, 2x4=8, ... 'x' must be multiplication. Division: 6/1=6, 6/2=3, 6/3=2, 6/6=1, ... '/' must be division. Zero: 1-1=0, 2-2=0, 1+0=1, ... '0' must be zero. Two-digits: 2x5=10, 3x4=12, ... two-digit numbers, base 10. Multi-digits: 10x10=100, 100x100=10000, ... multi-digit numbers. Decimals: 1/2=.5, 1/4=.25, 1/20=.05, ... '.' must be a decimal point.
This process can theoretically be carried further to derive the meanings of all 250 prime concepts in the ROSETTA Language. From there, the meanings of the compound concepts can be logically constructed, until the entire language has been defined. This self-defining process has not been completed, but it is clear from this beginning that it is feasible.
It is considered a fact that humans are not the only animals to possess some level of intelligence here on earth. Experiments have been done to communicate with chimpanzees and dolphins, and have achieved some success. A truly universal language, capable of potentially communicating with extra-terrestrial intelligence, certainly ought to be able to communicate with intra-terrestrial intelligence as well.
The ROSETTA Language could be used as the basis for such communication. Systems of representing the prime concepts in species-appropriate ways could be devised and used for communication. The complete set of prime concepts may not be needed, and certainly a limit would be reached on the number of compound concepts that are comprehendable, depending upon the species, but the clear and logical nature of the language makes it suitable for this kind of task. This endeavor is far outside my area of expertise, and it is mentioned here only to show the truly universal nature of the ROSETTA Language.
The idea of prime concepts is very similar to that of prime numbers. In mathematics, a prime number is one which cannot be factored, that is it cannot be derived by multiplying two smaller numbers together. Likewise, in the ROSETTA Language, a prime concept is one which cannot be factored, that is it cannot be derived by combining two or more other concepts together. The ROSETTA Language consists of 250 prime concepts, and all linguistic meanings are built from these elements.
To create these prime concepts, thousands of words and meanings were analyzed to see if they could be expressed as combinations of other words and meanings, or if they were so basic in meaning as to be indivisible and thus to become prime concepts. Through a series of iterations and refinements, the general lexicon of human language was reduced to its essential elements, resulting in the prime concepts. These are the indivisible units of all linguistic meaning, also known sometimes as morphemes or semantic primitives.
The ROSETTA Language is composed of 250 of these basic, indivisible meanings, or prime concepts. All other meanings are derived by combining these prime concepts together into compound concepts. A complete list of all prime concepts is contained in the [Prime Concepts Table]. All other concepts or meanings not included in this list are, by definition, compound concepts.
Compound concepts are created by combining two or more prime concepts together in a specific sequence. One of the simplest examples is the combination of the prime concepts 'parent' and 'male' to create the compound concept 'parent-male', or "father". Generally, when two or more prime concepts are combined, they create a more specifc meaning than either one alone. In this example, the compound concept "father" is a more specific term than either of its prime concepts 'parent' and 'male'.
An exception to this rule occurs when combining two prime concepts having opposite meanings, in which case a more general concept is created. An example of this is the combination of the prime concepts 'male' and 'female', creating the compound concept 'male-female', or "gender". Here, the compound concept "gender" is a more general term than either of its prime concepts 'male' and 'female'.
Another general rule to apply when forming compound concepts is that the primary or most basic concept is usually positioned first, and secondary or more specific concepts are appended to the end to give a more specific meaning. By adding more prime concepts to a compound concept, its meaning becomes more clear and specific. For example, the prime concept 'animal' may be used alone, or it may be combined with another prime concept such as 'temperature', to create the compound concept 'animal-temperature' meaning "mammal". This may be further combined with another prime concept such as 'liquid', to create the compound concept 'animal-temperature-liquid' meaning "sea mammal" which would refer to dolphins, whales, seals, etc.
Notice that when writing concepts, prime concepts are enclosed in single quotes, like 'this'; compound concepts are enclosed in double quotes, like "that"; and compound concepts expressed as a combination of prime concepts are enclosed in single quotes and separated by hyphens, like 'the-other'. This convention is followed when using the full-word representations of concepts. When using the three-letter abbreviations of concepts, they are written in capital letters, and separated by hypens, as in NUM-ONE, 'number-one', meaning "first".
Theoretically, there is no limit to the number of compound concepts which can be created. Just as new words are created and added to a natural language, new words may be created and added to the ROSETTA Language. There is also no limit to the length of a compound concept. Prime concepts may be linked together as long as necessary to clearly define a compound concept. However, practically speaking, compound concepts should be kept as short as possible for ease in reading, writing, speaking, signing, and touching.
ROSETTA Glyphics are the written symbols used to represent concepts in the ROSETTA Language. While alphabetic word concepts and three-letter abbreviations work fine, the language was designed to have its own set of graphical symbols. Each symbol is like a picture, which should immediately and clearly conjure up the idea represented. The symbols are more like Chinese characters or Egyptian hieroglyphics (hence the name 'ROSETTA Glyphics') than abstract verbal-related letters. Each prime concept has its own symbol, and compound concepts are a sequence of adjoining prime symbols. ROSETTA Glyphics are normally written left to right, but may also be written right to left like Hebrew, or top to bottom like Chinese.
Each symbol is easy to write by hand, with just a few strokes, like the letters of an alphabet. This makes ROSETTA Glyphics much easier to use than other written pictographic languages like Chinese. For computer representation, each symbol can be displayed within an 8x8 pixel grid, with the bottom and right rows of pixels always left blank for spacing between symbols, making the usable area actually a 7x7 pixel grid. This restriction insures that the symbols will not be overly complicated nor difficult to read and write. There is no superscripting or subscripting, no upper or lower case, and no juxtaposing or overlapping of symbols. Normally, the symbols would be written the same size as the letters of an alphabet.
An example of ROSETTA Glyphics follows:
The symbol for the prime concept 'do' is a large circle: O The symbol for the prime conecpt 'no' is a back slash: \ Combine the two prime concepts 'do' and 'no' together to form the compound concept 'do-no' which means "don't": O\
The ROSETTA Language may be expressed verbally in a variety of ways. The simplest way is to take the single word equivalent in a natural language corresponding to each of the prime concepts, and then speak using only those 250 words. Compound concepts would be spoken as the hyphenated concatenations of those prime concepts. This could be done using any natural language. Thus, to learn a foreign language with the ROSETTA Language as a base, one would need to learn only 250 words. It would not be complete or grammatical usage of that language, but it would be enough to be understood, and that is the essential goal of any communication. This alone would make international communication much more realizable.
However, the ROSETTA Language has it own set of spoken symbols as well. Each spoken symbol consists of one consonant followed by one vowel. There are 16 consonants and 16 vowels, which correspond to the 16 rows and 16 columns of the prime concepts. Each row signifies the same consonant, and each column signifies the same vowel. Prime concepts are spoken as a single-syllable utterance of the consonant followed by the vowel. Compound concepts are spoken as a multi-syllable concatenation of their prime concepts. In this way, ROSETTA Phonics can be clearly and completely used to represent all concepts in the ROSETTA Language.
The 16 consonants and their hexadecimal rows and pronunciations are:
The 16 vowels and their hexadecimal columns and pronunciations are:
The complete table of pronunciations for the ROSETTA Language is:
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F 0_ ah aa eh ee ih ii oh oo ahs aas ehs ees ihs iis ohs oos 1_ hah haa heh hee hih hii hoh hoo hahs haas hehs hees hihs hiis hohs hoos 2_ kah kaa keh kee kih kii koh koo kahs kaas kehs kees kihs kiis kohs koos 3_ gah gaa geh gee gih gii goh goo gahs gaas gehs gees gihs giis gohs goos 4_ pah paa peh pee pih pii poh poo pahs paas pehs pees pihs piis pohs poos 5_ bah baa beh bee bih bii boh boo bahs baas behs bees bihs biis bohs boos 6_ tah taa teh tee tih tii toh too tahs taas tehs tees tihs tiis tohs toos 7_ dah daa deh dee dih dii doh doo dahs daas dehs dees dihs diis dohs doos 8_ vah vaa veh vee vih vii voh voo vahs vaas vehs vees vihs viis vohs voos 9_ fah faa feh fee fih fii foh foo fahs faas fehs fees fihs fiis fohs foos A_ jah jaa jeh jee jih jii joh joo jahs jaas jehs jees jihs jiis johs joos B_ wah waa weh wee wih wii woh woo wahs waas wehs wees wihs wiis wohs woos C_ mah maa meh mee mih mii moh moo mahs maas mehs mees mihs miis mohs moos D_ nah naa neh nee nih nii noh noo nahs naas nehs nees nihs niis nohs noos E_ rah raa reh ree rih rii roh roo rahs raas rehs rees rihs riis rohs roos F_ zah zaa zeh zee zih zii zoh zoo zahs zaas zehs zees zihs ziis zohs zoos
A series of hand signals, similar to American Sign Language (ASL), is provided for use of the ROSETTA Language by deaf persons. Each prime concept has its own sign, and many are very similar to the pictographic symbols employed by ROSETTA Glyphics. All signs are performed with the use of only one hand (allowing left-hand or right-hand signification), and are motionless (as opposed to moving) representations. There are two major elements to each hand sign:
For the proper decipherment of some signs, it is important to remember that reference orientation is relative to the signer, not to the viewer. For example, the concept 'left' is indicated by pointing the index finger to the signer's left (which would normally be the viewer's right). Some hand signs are also very similar or identical to those of ASL.
A few examples will give you a general idea of how ROSETTA Signics work:
UP up Make a fist, then extend the index finger and point up. DWN down Make a fist, then extend the index finger and point down. LFT left Make a fist, then extend the index finger and point left. RGT right Make a fist, then extend the index finger and point right. EQL equal Make a fist, then extend the index and middle fingers with a small gap between them and point sideways (left).
A series of full body position symbols, or semaphores, with unique configurations of the head, arms, legs, and torso, could also be used to represent the prime concepts of the ROSETTA Language, but such a system has not yet been developed.
A touch-sensitive system of communication for blind persons, similar to Braille, is provided for the ROSETTA Language. Utilizing the hexadecimal nature of the language and its organization into 16 rows and 16 columns, each row and column is identified by a binary string of four bits. Each bit is identified by a raised or flat dot, with "on" bits indicated by a raised dot, and "off" bits indicated by a flat dot.
To form a complete prime concept, two bit strings are positioned next to each other, and read from left to right. The left bit string indicates the row or first hexadecimal character, and the right bit string indicates the column or second hexadecimal character. Blank space is used to separate one concept from another. Compound concepts are represented by joining two or more prime concepts together, just like alphabetic letters are joined together to form words.
Essentially, there is no fixed or formal grammar to the ROSETTA Language. Several concepts may be given together, separated by spaces, making sentences as each user sees fit. This makes the language appealing to the users of many different natural languages, who may want to think and communicate in the grammar and word order of their mother tongue. There are, however, a number of rules to follow when building concepts to form the various parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions.
Nouns function to name something. They generally begin with the concepts 'person', 'place', 'thing', or 'idea'. Examples include 'person-flag' meaning "citizen", 'place-flag' meaning "nation", 'thing-flag' meaning "flag", and 'idea-flag' meaning "sovereignty". Concrete nouns (things) and abstract nouns (ideas) are differentiated by the starting concepts 'thing' and 'idea' respectively.
Some nouns begin with other concepts which are instances of things or ideas in themselves. Some examples are 'building-medical' meaning "hospital" and 'mind-up' meaning "wisdom". Verbal nouns - gerunds and infinitives - begin with either the concepts 'idea-do' meaning "action, process" or 'idea-be' meaning "quality, state". Examples are 'idea-do-together' meaning "joining", and 'idea-be-together' meaning "connection".
Pronouns substitute for nouns. They always begin like nouns, but end with a number concept like 'one', 'two', or 'three' which substitues for a more specific or direct concept or meaning. Examples are 'person-one' meaning "I, me, self", 'person-two' meaning "you, other", and 'person-three' meaning "he, she". Notice how nicely these correspond to the narrative terms first person, second person, and third person. Pronouns are not limited to three, however, and can be used to refer to and distinguish between any number of different nouns.
Noun and pronoun inflection or declension is accomplished by adding the appropriate concept to the end of a noun. To make a noun plural, the concept 'multiple' is added to the end. For example 'thing-multiple' meaning "things" or 'person-one-multiple' meaning "we, us". To make a noun possessive, the concept 'own' is added to the end. For example 'person-one-own' meaning "my, mine" or 'person-two-own' meaning "your, yours". Gender is not necessary in the ROSETTA Language, but it can be assigned if desired by adding the concepts 'male' or 'female' to the end of a noun concept.
Verbs express action or state of being. They always begin with the concepts 'do' or 'be'. Examples of verbs include 'do-up' meaning "to rise", 'do-down' meaning "to fall", 'be-plus' meaning "to be with", and 'be-minus' meaning "to be without". Almost any concept can be made into a verb by adding 'do' or 'be' in front of it. Some examples are 'do-food' meaning "to eat", 'do-fire' meaning "to burn", 'be-food' meaning "to be eaten", and 'be-fire' meaning "to be burned". Note that the active and passive voices are identified by the starting concepts 'do' and 'be' respectively.
Verb inflection or conjugation is accomplished by adding the appropriate concept to the end of a verb. To make a verb past tense, the concept 'past' is added to the end. To make a verb future tense, the concept 'future' is added to the end. For example 'do-down-past' meaning "fell", or 'do-down-future' meaning "will fall". Without a time concept added to the end of a verb, it is assumed to be present tense. Mood, person, number, and gender are all not necessary with verbs in the ROSETTA Language, but they can be added if desired.
Adjectives and adverbs modify other concepts. They always begin with the concept 'like', symbolized by the tilde, and end with other concepts describing the modification.
Adjectives and adverbs may precede or follow the noun or verb they modify, depending on the user's preference. Examples of adjectives and adverbs are 'like-up' meaning "high, highly", and 'like-down' meaning "low, lowly". Verbal adjectives - participles and infinitives - function as adjectives or adverbs, but are derived from verbs by preceding them with the concept 'like'. Examples are 'like-do' meaning "active, actively", 'like-be' meaning "passive, passively", and 'like-do-mouth' meaning "verbal, verbally". A complete example of a noun, 'building-medical' meaning "hospital", and its modifier, 'like-dimension-plus' meaning "large", placed together would be 'building-medical like-dimension-plus' meaning "the large hospital".
Conjunctions join concepts or groups of concepts. Prepositions show the relationship between concepts. They are both used in the ROSETTA Language by placing them between concepts as needed. For example, 'person-one and person-two' meaning "me and you", 'person-one choice person-two' meaning "me or you", and 'person-one past-compare person-two' meaning "me before you".
Punctuation is highly simplified in the ROSETTA Language. Sentences may be punctuated at their beginning, or at their end, or at both places. A punctuation mark is separated from its sentence by one blank or null character, and is separated from another sentence by two or more blank or null characters. There are only three types of sentences in the ROSETTA Language, and each has its own identifying punctuation mark:
The following are examples of sentences in English and in the ROSETTA Language:
Commas may be employed as the user sees fit to separate clauses or related concepts within a sentence. A comma in the ROSETTA Language is a prime concept meaning 'pause'. A colon in the ROSETTA Language is a prime concept meaning 'type, class, category', and not punctuation. Quotation marks are used in the ROSETTA Language to quote directly what a speaker says. The hyphen is also a prime concept meaning 'subtract, minus'. It is not used as punctuation in the ROSETTA Language. Other forms of punctuation are not used in the ROSETTA Language.
Capitalization applies only to alphabetic writing, and is thus not applicable to the written ROSETTA Language. In natural languages, it is used for the first word in a sentence, and for proper names. Proper names of people in the ROSETTA Language begin with the concepts 'male' or 'female', followed by other concepts as desired, usually based upon their sounds (see ROSETTA Phonics). Proper names of places and things begin with the concept 'label', followed immediately by the concepts 'place' or 'thing', and then by other concepts as appropriate.
As mentioned earlier, sentences may be constructed with concepts in any order desired. The major parts of a sentence are generally labeled subject (S), verb (V) and object (O). Thus sentences can be created in SVO, SOV, or VSO order. The choice will usually depend upon the grammar and word order of the user's native language. The only rule, and this may be overridden as long as it is consistent within a given communication, is that the subject should precede the object. The meaning should still be clear even to those who would prefer a different word order. For example, consider the following three sentences, each containing the same concepts and having the same meaning:
The ROSETTA Language may, at some point in the future, develop a more formal grammar automatically. This may occur spontaneously in children who may learn the language at a very young age, or by deliberate and rational choice. However, a formal grammar is not really required for the most basic and simple usage of the language.
A complete list of all prime concepts in the ROSETTA Language is given in the table below. Each concept is given with its number, hexadecimal computer code, ASCII equivalent (if any), three-letter alphabetic abbreviation, symbol description, and a short list of synonyms. The concepts are grouped into like categories based on their symbols and meanings.
PRIME CONCEPTS TABLE:
Num Hex Alpha Symbol Meaning and Synonyms --- --- ----- ---------------- ------------------------------------- DOTS AND PUNCTUATION 000. 00 blank space, blank, null, concept separator 001. 01 . DOT period statement, informative, declarative 002. 02 ! XCL exclamation exclamation, imperative, command 003. 03 ? QUE question mark question, interrogative, inquiry 004. 04 : TYP colon type, class, category 005. 05 CPR sideways colon compare, comparison 006. 06 PRT division part, piece, divide 007. 07 CHS side division choice, choose, select 008. 08 MID element equals middle, center 009. 09 REC element repeat record 010. 0A ELE central dot element, individual 011. 0B SET triangle dots set, group, collection 012. 0C SEQ horizontal dots sequence, order 013. 0D LVL vertical dots level, hierarchy 014. 0E , CMA comma pause, separator 015. 0F " QOT quotation mark quotation LINES AND CROSSES 016. 10 YES check mark yes, okay, affirmative 017. 11 \ NO backslash no, not, negative 018. 12 ERR yes and no error, mistake, incorrect 019. 13 ~ LIK tilde like, modifier, adjective, adverb 020. 14 x MUL multiply sign multiple, plural 021. 15 + ADD plus sign plus, more 022. 16 - SUB minus sign minus, less 023. 17 STD short bar standard, common, regular, basic 024. 18 = EQL equal sign equality, sameness 025. 19 REP parallel sign repeat, again 026. 1A # NUM number sign number, amount 027. 1B MRK asterisk mark, trace, vestige 028. 1C BDR fence border, boundary 029. 1D BLK blockade block, obstruction, impediment 030. 1E MSR horizontal scale measure, quantity 031. 1F MNR vertical scale monitor, quality CIRCLES AND CURVES 032. 20 O DO large cicrcle do, act, verb (active) 033. 21 o BE small circle be, exist, verb (passive) 034. 22 OP large dot circle operation, process, procedure, -ing 035. 23 ED small dot circle -ed, state, situation, circumstance 036. 24 WHL wheel wheel, turn 037. 25 BAL ball ball, roll 038. 26 NAT ecology sign nature 039. 27 GOD unity sign god, deity 040. 28 ( BGN left paren begin, start, initiate 041. 29 ) END right paren end, finish, terminate 042. 2A HLD down paren hold, contain 043. 2B LNK up paren link, connect, bridge 044. 2C EVI contained in evidence 045. 2D IPL logic implies implication 046. 2E u TOG union together, join, union 047. 2F n APR intersection apart, separate TRIANGLES AND ANGLES 048. 30 FRM left triangle form, shape 049. 31 DIM right triangle dimension 050. 32 ANG angle angle, fold, bend 051. 33 DIR plow direction, course 052. 34 PCN diamond dot precision 053. 35 DGR diamond plus danger 054. 36 IPT diamond minus importance 055. 37 SFN diamond bar satisfaction 056. 38 IN less than in 057. 39 OUT greater than out 058. 3A ON down wedge on 059. 3B OFF up wedge off 060. 3C FRO left caret from, by 061. 3D TO right caret to, for 062. 3E OF down caret of, about, regarding 063. 3F ^ BUT up caret but, except SQUARES AND BRACKETS 064. 40 OBJ large square object, thing, material, noun 065. 41 IDA small square idea, concept, immaterial, noun 066. 42 DEV large dot square device 067. 43 ACC small dot square accessory 068. 44 MAC thing multiply machine 069. 45 PIC window picture, image, view 070. 46 CRD card w/mag strip card 071. 47 BOK open book book 072. 48 [ OPN open bracket open 073. 49 ] CLS close bracket close 074. 4A BAS down bracket base, foundation, stand, support 075. 4B CAP up bracket cap, cover, lid, protect 076. 4C PRE left open square prepare, ready 077. 4D USE right open square use, utilize 078. 4E SAV down open square save, store, keep, retain 079. 4F DEL up open square delete, discard ARROWS AND POINTERS 080. 50 LFT left arrow left 081. 51 RGT right arrow right 082. 52 DWN down arrow down 083. 53 UP up arrow up 084. 54 FOR down-left arrow fore, forward 085. 55 AFT up-right arrow aft, backward 086. 56 AWY up-left arrow away 087. 57 TWD down-right arrow toward 088. 58 SRC left dbl. arrow source, means, resource 089. 59 GOL right dbl. arrow goal, target, objective 090. 5A BRK down dbl. arrow break, ruin, destroy 091. 5B MAK up dbl. arrow make, build, create 092. 5C CON left dbl. caret con, against 093. 5D PRO right dbl. caret pro, for, support 094. 5E EFR down dbl. caret effort 095. 5F ABL up dbl. caret ability HOOKS AND LOOPS 096. 60 ANY left-right hooks any 097. 61 REV left-right arrows reverse 098. 62 ALL integral all, every, integral 099. 63 OPP up-down arrows opposite 100. 64 STP hand held up stop 101. 65 GO hand points away go 102. 66 t TRU letter "t" true 103. 67 f FAL letter "f" false 104. 68 AND ampersand and 105. 69 OR loop or 106. 6A CPX pretzel complexity 107. 6B FUN loop-de-loop function 108. 6C TXR horiz. wavey line texture 109. 6D FBR vert. wavey line fibre 110. 6E TWS coil twist, turn, coil, wrap 111. 6F undefined PHYSICS 112. 70 SND waves sound 113. 71 LIT rays light 114. 72 TMP vapor temperature 115. 73 ZAP spark electro-magnetism 116. 74 SBS blob substance, material 117. 75 SLD vertical oval solid 118. 76 LIQ droplet liquid 119. 77 GAS balloon gas 120. 78 EVT bow-tie event 121. 79 TIM hourglass time 122. 7A MAS anchor mass, matter 123. 7B FRC omega force, energy 124. 7C CAU left bow-tie cause 125. 7D EFC right bow-tie effect 126. 7E FUT up hourglass future 127. 7F PAS down hourglass past ORGANICS 128. 80 Y PLT seedling plant 129. 81 A ANI biped animal 130. 82 LIF seedling + biped life 131. 83 SEX DNA: dbl. helix sex, reproduction 132. 84 MAL mars sign male, masculine 133. 85 FEM venus sign female, feminine 134. 86 CHI down body child, offspring, posterity, progeny 135. 87 PAR up body parent, paternity 136. 88 SPO horiz. rings spouse, mate 137. 89 DOM vert. rings dominance, authority 138. 8A SHR slant rings share 139. 8B CPT back-slant rings competition, compete 140. 8C SYS four rings system 141. 8D RST reclining body rest, recline 142. 8E MUS up musical note music 143. 8F ART down musical note art HUMANITY 144. 90 PER body + feet person, individual, human being 145. 91 ORG dbl. body + feet organization, group, collection 146. 92 SNS neuron sense, sensation, sensual 147. 93 SOL halo soul, conscience, superego 148. 94 EMO heart emotion, feeling, id 149. 95 MND diamond mind, rational, ego 150. 96 SOC club social, behavior 151. 97 WIL spade will, volition 152. 98 LNG round call-out language, communication 153. 99 MSG square call-out message, note 154. 9A LBL horiz. rectangle label, tag, name 155. 9B DOC vert. rectangle document, read 156. 9C PEN slash pen, stylus, write 157. 9D PCT percent sign percentage, chance 158. 9E ATK sword attack, offense, violence 159. 9F DEF shield, badge defend, defense, protect ANATOMY 160. A0 BOD chinese "man" body, physical 161. A1 TOR hangman torso torso 162. A2 ARM hangman arms arms and hands 163. A3 LEG hangman legs legs and feet 164. A4 HND hand hand, manual 165. A5 L FOT foot foot, pedal 166. A6 FGR finger finger 167. A7 TOE toe toe 168. A8 HED smiley face head 169. A9 TAL tail tail 170. AA MTH pac-man mouth 171. AB TNG upside-down omega tongue 172. AC SKN cell skin 173. AD EYE eye eye 174. AE EAR ear ear 175. AF NOS nose nose VOCATIONS 176. B0 V JOB letter "V" job, vocation, occupation, profession 177. B1 $ VAL dollar sign value, money, dollar 178. B2 CAL hash marks calculate, compute 179. B3 E ENT upside-down hat entertainment 180. B4 IND factory industry, business, commerce 181. B5 GOV flag government 182. B6 TOY yoyo toy, play, fun 183. B7 TOL mallet tool, work 184. B8 BUS horiz. "8" w/line business 185. B9 COM vert. "8" w/line commerce 186. BA MED rod of Asclepius medical 187. BB LGL scales of justice legal 188. BC PRN flowchart print print, press, media 189. BD LTR envelope letter, post 190. BE FIL file folder file, data, information 191. BF CAS briefcase case, container EVERYDAY OBJECTS 192. C0 BEV cup beverage, drink 193. C1 FOD bread food, eat 194. C2 FAB cloth fabric, cloth 195. C3 CLO hat clothing 196. C4 BLD stick house building 197. C5 ROM stick room room 198. C6 TBL stick table table, furniture 199. C7 CHR stick chair chair, seat, sit 200. C8 VEH cart vehicle 201. C9 WAY underscore way, path 202. CA @ AT at sign at, place, location 203. CB FLD grass field, yard, outdoors 204. CC FIR flames fire 205. CD WEA cloud weather 206. CE WAR plate wares 207. CF ORN ring ornament SIMPLE ACTIONS 208. D0 T HIT hammer hit 209. D1 CUT dagger cut 210. D2 SQZ tongs squeeze, pliers, forceps, tweezers 211. D3 HNG clothes hanger hang, pendency 212. D4 DIG shovel dig 213. D5 POK fork poke, stab 214. D6 undefined 215. D7 undefined 216. D8 undefined 217. D9 undefined 218. DA CLN broom clean 219. DB GRM comb groom 220. DC CTL left delta control 221. DD RUL right delta rule 222. DE MOV down-delta move, motion 223. DF CHG up delta change, modify SIMPLE OBBJECTS 224. E0 STR star star 225. E1 BEL bell bell, ring 226. E2 AWL awl awl, punch, pick, driver 227. E3 | BAR large bar bar, rod, staff, pole 228. E4 p NDL needle needle 229. E5 H LDR ladder ladder, stairs, climb 230. E6 undefined 231. E7 undefined 232. E8 BRD board board, plank 233. E9 undefined 234. EA SUP truss support, truss, prop, bolster 235. EB BRC brick brick 236. EC undefined 237. ED undefined 238. EE undefined 239. EF undefined NUMBERS AND RESERVED 240. F0 0 ZRO number "0" zero, none 241. F1 1 ONE number "1" one 242. F2 2 TWO number "2" two 243. F3 3 TRE number "3" three 244. F4 4 FOU number "4" four 245. F5 5 FIV number "5" five 246. F6 6 SIX number "6" six 247. F7 7 SEV number "7" seven 248. F8 8 EGT number "8" eight 249. F9 9 NIN number "9" nine